Sunday, May 24, 2020

US Punitive Expedition During the Mexican Revolution

Issues between the United States and Mexico began shortly after the beginning of the 1910 Mexican Revolution. With various factions threatening foreign business interests and citizens, US military interventions, such as the 1914 occupation of Veracruz occurred. With the ascendency of Venustiano Carranza, the United States elected to recognize his government on October 19, 1915. This decision angered Francisco Pancho Villa who commanded revolutionary forces in northern Mexico. In retribution, he began attacks against American citizens including killing seventeen aboard a train in Chihuahua. Not content with these attacks, Villa mounted a major assault on Columbus, NM. Attacking on the night of March 9, 1916, his men struck the town and a detachment of the 13th US Cavalry Regiment. The resulting fighting left eighteen Americans dead and eight wounded, while Villa lost around 67 killed. In the wake of this cross-border incursion, public outrage led President Woodrow Wilson to order the military to make an effort to capture Villa. Working with Secretary of War Newton Baker, Wilson directed that a punitive expedition be formed and supplies and troops began arriving at Columbus. Across the Border To lead the expedition, US Army Chief of Staff Major General Hugh Scott selected Brigadier General John J. Pershing. A veteran of the Indian Wars and Philippine Insurrection, Pershing was also known for his diplomatic skills and tact. Attached to Pershings staff was a young lieutenant who would later become famous, George S. Patton. While Pershing worked to marshal his forces, Secretary of State Robert Lansing lobbied Carranza into allowing American troops to cross the border. Though reluctant, Carranza agreed as long as US forces did not advance beyond the state of Chihuahua. On March 15, Pershings forces crossed the border in two columns with one departing from Columbus and the other from Hachita. Consisting of infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers, and logistical units, Pershings command pushed south seeking Villa and established a headquarters at Colonia Dublan near the Casas Grandes River. Though promised use of the Mexican Northwestern Railway, this was not forthcoming and Pershing soon faced a logistical crisis. This was solved through the use of truck trains which used Dodge trucks to ferry supplies the one hundred miles from Columbus. Frustration in the Sands Included in the expedition was Captain Benjamin D. Foulois First Aero Squadron. Flying JN-3/4 Jennys, they provided scouting and reconnaissance services for Pershings command. With a weeks head start, Villa dispersed his men into the rugged countryside of northern Mexico. As a result, early American efforts to locate him met with failure. While many of the local populace disliked Villa, they were more annoyed by the American incursion and failed to offer assistance. Two weeks into the campaign, elements of the 7th US Cavalry fought a minor engagement with Villistas near San Geronimo. The situation was further complicated on April 13, when American forces were attacked by Carranzas Federal troops near Parral. Though his men drove off the Mexicans, Pershing elected to concentrate his command at Dublan and focus on sending out smaller units to find Villa. Some success was had on May 14, when a detachment led by Patton located the commander of Villas bodyguard Julio CÃ ¡rdenas at San Miguelito. In the resulting skirmish, Patton killed CÃ ¡rdenas. The next month, Mexican-American relations suffered another blow when Federal troops engaged two troops of the 10th US Cavalry near Carrizal. In the fighting, seven Americans were killed and 23 captured. These men were returned to Pershing a short time later. With Pershings men searching in vain for Villa and tensions rising, Scott and Major General Frederick Funston began negotiations with Carranzas military advisor, Alvaro Obregon, at El Paso, TX. These talks ultimately led to an agreement where American forces would withdraw if Carranza would control Villa. As Pershings men continued their search, their rear was covered by 110,000 National Guardsmen that Wilson called into service in June 1916. These men were deployed along the border. With talks progressing and troops defending the border against raids, Pershing assumed a more defensive position and patrolled less aggressively. The presence of American forces, along with combat losses and desertions, effectively limited Villas ability to pose a meaningful threat. Through the summer, American troops battled boredom at Dublan through sporting activities, gambling, and imbibing at the numerous cantinas. Other needs were met through an officially sanctioned and monitored brothel that was established within the American camp. Pershings forces remained in place through the fall. The Americans Withdraw On January 18, 1917, Funston informed Pershing that American troops would be withdrawn at an early date. Pershing agreed with the decision and began moving his 10,690 men north towards the border on January 27. Forming his command at Palomas, Chihuahua, it re-crossed the border on February 5 en route to Fort Bliss, TX. Officially concluded, the Punitive Expedition had failed in its objective to capture Villa. Pershing privately complained that Wilson had imposed too many restrictions on the expedition, but also admitted that Villa had outwitted and out-bluffed [him] at every turn. Though the expedition failed to capture Villa, it did provide a valuable training experience for the 11,000 men who took part. One of the largest military American military operations since the Civil War, it provided lessons to be utilized as the United States inched closer and closer to World War I. Also, it served as an effective projection of American power which aided in halting raids and aggression along the border.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Why Chinese mothers are superior - 900 Words

â€Å"Why Chinese mothers are superior† is an essay published in The Wall Street Journal in January 2011. It is written by Amu Chua, who is also the author of the book â€Å"Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother†. In the essay deals with the ever controversial question of how to raise a child. How to make your kids grow up happy, strong and self-reliant. Different cultures have very different perspectives on upbringing and education, and in this essay Chua presents the Chinese parenting method. The essay caused a large stir, generating more than 4.000 comments on the webpage of The Wall Street Journal and around 100.000 comments on Facebook. The global debate that Amy Chua started is not surprising, since the Chinese way of raising children is very†¦show more content†¦9 line 88. The western perception is more pro-individuality, cultivating the children’s preferences and desires. This is for better or worse, since some children like watching TV all day and som e parents let them. â€Å"Once a child starts to excel at something - whether it’s math, piano, pitching or ballet - he or she gets praise, admiration and satisfaction. This builds confidence and makes the once not-fun activity fun.† p. 3 line 44. Amy Chua’s main argument in favor of the Chinese parenting methods is that nothing is more motivating and strengthening of the confidence as success. And I believe no one would argue that. The problem is, however, that Chua believes that nearly no methods are off limits to achieve success. Success should be achievable without the use of excessive methods as shaming, punishing and excoriating the child. Parent should motivate their kids to excel and not punish them if they don’t. By this not saying that discipline shouldn’t be a part of the upbringing, because it should to some point. It is difficult to define the point to which it is acceptable to push your kids, but doing things to actually harm your children to make them feel more motivated is taking it to far. Putting too much pressure on the child will never do any good, especially when taking the mindset and the insecurity into account. A child should feel loved by its parents no matter what, and not dependi ng if they got an A or if they played the piano piece right. HowShow MoreRelatedWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior992 Words   |  4 PagesWhy Chinese Mothers are superior In 2011 Amy Chua wrote an article in which she involves people in how Chinese parents are raising their children. There are huge differences in how western parents are raising their children and how Chinese parents are raising their children. As a western person the methods Chua is using seems a little rough, but maybe it is the way to go. Her children have never been at a sleepover and the only choices they had was playing the piano or the violin. While readingRead MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior1526 Words   |  7 PagesYale law professor Amy Chua presents a harsh comparison of Chinese and Western ideas of child rearing in her essay entitled â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers are Superior.† This essay is an excerpt from her controversial 2011 book entitled Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mom and was published as an op-ed in a 2011 edition of The New York Times. In this essay Chua strives to challenge the readers’ idea of Chinese mothers and the way that they choose to effective ly raise their children, and to present the reader withRead MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior1496 Words   |  6 PagesAmy Chua’s â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior† highlights the different ways of parenting. Even though her title specifically states â€Å"Chinese Mothers,† this term is used to describe vast majority of Asian parents’ way of nurturing. These â€Å"tiger mothers† make their kids practice musical instrument numerous hours a day without a break and demand straight As. They force their children to keep enhancing their academic skill because she thinks that her children have the potential to be the best. The kids’Read MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior856 Words   |  4 Pagesstyles and Chinese are considered authoritarian. Amy Chua, a Yale professor, a famous author, who recently wrote the book, â€Å"Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother†, in which she discuses parenting and the difference between Chinese and Weste rn parenting. After reading â€Å" Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior†, she argues about different parenting styles and how Chinese parents are superior in terms of focusing on education with their kids. According to the Toulmin model, Amy Chua claims that Chinese parents raiseRead MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior1214 Words   |  5 PagesWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior ------------------------------------------------- Amy Chua â€Å"Hey fatty – lose some weight.† Do you think this sound like a mother who is superior? According to the Western idea of what good parenting includes this would be intolerable, but if you consider this from an Eastern point of view this wouldn’t be wrong or abnormal. In additional it seems that Chinese parents can get away with things that Western parents can’t which alludes to talk about two different child-rearingRead MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior1207 Words   |  5 Pages†Why Chinese Mothers are Superior† It is impossible to deny the difficulty of childrearing. There is no manual but there are indeed methods more ethically correct than others. This is of course a subjective matter and often leads to endless discussions. The ways of childrearing have changed over the years and varies a lot based on the environment/country surrounding the parents and their children. In the article, â€Å"Why Chines Mothers are Superior†, Amy Chua, the professor at Yale law school, attemptsRead MoreAnalysis Of Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior1210 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior† Critique The article, â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,† seemed like it had completely inflamed the entire United States due to the content that the author and Yale Law School professor, Amy Chua had included in her writing. This Chinese mother described her parenting style as superior and all knowing compared to the parenting style of the common Western parent which was described as anxious and conflicted. The article follows the structure of the chinese mothersRead MoreAnalysis Of Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior1236 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior† Critique Amy Chua, a professor at Yale Law School, the author of â€Å"The World on Fire†, â€Å"Day of Empire†, and â€Å"Why They Fall†, in a Wall street Journal on January 8th, 2011, believes chinese mothers are the most rigorous on their children. The title of the article â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior† was not chosen by Amy, but by the Wall Street Journal. Even though Amy did not write the title, there is reasoning that she does believe that chinese parenting is superiorRead MoreReasons Why Chinese Mothers are Superior803 Words   |  4 PagesWhy Chinese mothers are superior Af Mathias Hammerstrà ¸m ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Write an essay (900-1200 words) in which you analyser and comment on Amy Chua’s article â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior†. Part of your essay must focus on how the writer engages the reader and on possible consequences of adopting Amy Chua’s values and methods of upbringing. There’s a lot of different ways to raise your kids, and a lotRead MoreWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior By Amy Chua1119 Words   |  5 Pagesthemselves this question since the beginning of mankind. Some methods are better than others and some are quite questionable. In â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior†, Amy Chua discusses the effectiveness of her parenting style. This is an excerpt from Amy Chua’s book Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. According to Behrens and Rosen, â€Å"the title â€Å"Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior† was written by the editors of the [Wall Street] Journal, not by Chua, most likely in an attempt (a successful one) to attract attention

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Exceptional Figures In Legend Of Sleepy Hollow English Literature Essay Free Essays

The attitudes of the people toward the exceeding figures in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow will be discussed in this paper. In The Grave, society considered the grave to be an exceeding figure. Ichabod and the Headless Horseman in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow were considered outstanding characters by the community. We will write a custom essay sample on Exceptional Figures In Legend Of Sleepy Hollow English Literature Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Peoples had assorted emotions about Brom Bones and it was difficult to state what the people were believing. Robert Blair ‘s work, The Grave, shows the attitude the people had refering the glumness of the grave. Ichabod was tall and lanky with immense custodies and narrow shoulders. He besides had long weaponries and legs. He had green eyes and his olfactory organ could state which way the air current was blowing. Ichabod ever put the load on the strong alternatively of the weak and helped out in his vicinity. When Ichabod did n’t demo up at school where he was a schoolmaster for yearss, people thought that he was dead. I think possibly he did n’t desire to cover with all the play with Hans Van Ripper and the town ‘s people. He helped with the vicinity choir and was considered the â€Å" singing-master † of the group. He was handpicked by the people to take the vocalizing during Sunday church services. Ichabod ‘s personality besides had an evil, anti- hero side. For illustration, while he was taking attention of the weak babes, Ichabod would be looking for the beautiful lady of the house. He wanted them to make things for him, such as do his repasts and possibly other favours. The lone ground he was a instructor was to have free repasts and live the easy life. He would travel to the weak in order to acquire what he wanted. Brom Bones, another character in the Legend of Sleepy Hollow, is considered to be an outstanding figure and an anti- hero in his community. I feel that he was considered a bad cat when jobs in town occurred. Peoples in town had assorted feelings about him. They did n’t cognize what to believe of him. Every clip there was a bash, all of the town ‘s people would ever fault him for the battle. Brom Bones liked to affect the Dutch by demoing his witchery to the married womans and comets and hiting stars. In The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, another extraordinary character is the shade. There were many people in the town who were afraid to travel out tardily at dark, because they feared the Headless Horseman was doing his unit of ammunitions to the church graveyard. The fable is that it was the â€Å" shade of a Hessian cavalryman † , whose caput had been carried off by a cannon-ball in some unidentified conflict during the Revolutionary War. â€Å" It was of all time and anon seen by the state common people travel rapidlying along in the somberness of dark. † I think the Headless Horseman is merely seeking to acquire back to the conflict to happen his caput. He ever returns to the God’s acre before daytime Begins. I do n’t believe the Headless Horseman is person to be feared ; he is merely seeking urgently to happen his caput. In Robert Blair ‘s The Grave everyone ‘s grave is considered glooming and awful and an exceeding figure to society. Everyone in this narrative thinks the grave is bad and non a topographic point to travel. For illustration, in the narrative it mentions the grave as â€Å" the keys of snake pit and decease. † Peoples were afraid because life was like Eden and death is like traveling to hell. In the narrative, Blair besides talks about how peaceable and unagitated it is. When he uses the word peace, he is speaking about how the organic structure is when 1 ‘s true psyche eventually finds it. One will eventually turn to dust and be given back to the land which they were given as a gift of life. There is one grave at the graveyard that ever vanishes at dark. It ‘s a freshly opened grave. I feel this means that when a individual is dead, they can come back to life. It reminds me that people are truly merely populating their lives off of borrowed clip and life is non to be taken for granted. Time is cherished, which is something that people tend to bury. I do n’t believe it was their whole organic structures, but merely their liquors. Even in today ‘s society, there is a telecasting show called â€Å" The Haunting, † where they find evil liquors inquiring about. I think all liquors that are left on Earth are merely evil liquors desiring to harm all the good people in our society. In The Grave, it discusses people holding life after decease. For illustration, it states that â€Å" Of the good Man is PEACE. † I think this shows that if a individual dies a good individual, they have nil to worry approximately. The people during the Romantic Time period should hold been able to travel to heaven and non be worried about the grave and the result of their life. If a individual lives a good life, so they will travel to heaven. A individual should n’t be afraid of deceasing. A individual should be happy and rejoice because they are traveling to a better topographic point. In The Grave, there are non people that think about decease and themselves at the same clip. For illustration, the book states â€Å" as if to larn to decease were no concern of ours. † I think the people back so merely did n’t cognize when their clip would be so they did n’t brood on it. They knew that it was a portion of life and it happened to everybody. Peoples of those times should hold thought about it some ; it ‘s foolish non to believe about it at all. A individual does n’t cognize if tomorrow is traveling to their last twenty-four hours. God can stop this universe whenever he wants ; it ‘s his and he created it. I hope that people of that clip thought about the true significance of life for God every twenty-four hours. All in all, the extraordinary figures did cognize the difference between life and decease. Ichabod and the Headless Horsemen were good known by their communities. They were known as non all bad, but more of a split personality. I think Brom Bones besides had some good qualities about him because he did assist in his community. Peoples did n’t merely look at the glumness in the grave, but besides on the bright side of the hereafter. How to cite Exceptional Figures In Legend Of Sleepy Hollow English Literature Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Impact of Innovation on Organization-

Question: Discuss about the Impact of Innovation on Organization Performance in retail Industry in United Kingdom. Answer: Field of research This research topic will identify the impact of using innovation in to the business model of the organization. The study will highlight the various types of innovative strategies, which are being used by companies in the retail industry to gain competitive advantage. The retail market is saturated in United Kingdom and there is immense competition in the market. Thus, there is repetitive use of innovation among the companies for maintaining the sustainability of the organization. Secondary data source The study will use data from various articles, peer reviewed journals and relevant website articles to gather relevant data. The study will use thematic and case study method to analyze various cases relevant to this field. The journals and articles will be analyzed to form themes and provide relevant data that will be able to validate the existing theories. Pantano, E. (2014). Innovation drivers in retail industry.International Journal of Information Management,34(3), 344-350. Keywords - innovation in retail industry, impact of innovation on retail, business model innovation in retail Research objective To identify the impact of innovation on the retail industry in United Kingdom To identify the significance of innovation on the retail industry in United Kingdom To recommend suitable strategies for organizations to gain competitive advantage and maintain long term sustainability in the retail industry. Research question What is the impact of innovation on the performance of the organizations in the retail sector? What is the significance of innovation on the performance of the organizations in the retail sector? References Yu, W., Ramanathan, R., Nath, P. (2014). The impacts of marketing and operations capabilities on financial performance in the UK retail sector: A resource-based perspective.Industrial Marketing Management,43(1), 25-31. Moatti, V., Ren, C. R., Anand, J., Dussauge, P. (2015). Disentangling the performance effects of efficiency and bargaining power in horizontal growth strategies: An empirical investigation in the global retail industry.Strategic Management Journal,36(5), 745-757. Camisn, C., Villar-Lpez, A. (2014). Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance.Journal of business research,67(1), 2891-2902.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Genre free essay sample

Do you what does Genre mean? According to Dilatory. Com (2005) It Is a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content technique, or like: the genre of epic poetry; the genre of symphonic music. Genre has different categories; these include Blues, Classical, Country, Electronic, Folk, Jazz, New Age, Reggae and Rock. Gravel, D. (2011). We, Filipinos also have our own category.Do you what it is? Guessed it right, its MOM (Original Filipino Music). MOM is anything thats performed by a Filipino artist. Studded. Com (2011) There are also new genres that made their way on the year 2012. On the list are Drill, Trap, Hipster House, Ratchet, Queer Rap, Tumble-wave and Sea punk. Wagner, D (2012) Yes, they have weird names. Artists tend to experiment and invent new genres so expect every year with sprouting genres of great differences. Who couldnt make music without singers behind It?With their names, who wouldnt know these male artists like Tingle Temper, Tall Cruz, WIZ Shall, Bullet, Akin, Justine Bibber, Mine, Bruno Mars Unripe Meaningless and usher? Okay, M. We will write a custom essay sample on Genre or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page (2012) How about songstresses Like Eek$ha, Jennifer Lopez, Beyond, Adele, Brittany Spears, Iranian, Taylor Swift, Kathy Perry, Shakier and Lady Gaga are they familiar? Okay, M. (2012) These noise makers paved their way to music industry and are now chart toppers including fresh names like One Direction, Cheer Lloyd, David Choc,Siren Limo and many more.I bet you can name songs made by mentioned artists. Since we are talking about music, what can music do to its listeners, major teenagers? It can only end up into 2 results, the good and the bad result. Looking on the bright side, it can connect two people of the same undertakings. An example of it is Mine, a rapper. He usually tells his personal troubles by rapping It. People who listen to it and are stuck at the same situation can relate and the song Itself can give hope to the listeners. On the other hand, It also has Its negatively.For Instances, rapper, WIZ Shall shares a song that depicts drugs and Intercourse, without being aware that there are listeners with age groups below 13 it can influence them. It can give off the urge to use drugs and enlarge egos which is a bad thing. Whatever the message of the song, good or bad, it ends up to the listeners mind and affect them. Miriam, S. (2012) Besides Psychological effects, music has its health benefits. One of its benefits is pain management. Music is a perfect way to divert your attention to pain. Another one is that it can reduce stress. Listening to calm and soothing music can be a simple way to relieve stress. It can also boost ones immune system. Research shows that if one listens to opera music it can regulate peripheral immune system. If one listens jumpy and active music, it can be ones encouragement to do exercise. An example of this is when one listens to music and Jives with the beat, exercise Is already done. You think singing lullabies at night Is childs, well think again. Music can promote sleep and sedatives especially that light and slow music. Genre free essay sample Crime fiction is a diverse and appealing genre. It is its unique capacity to evolve and transcend contextual barriers to suit changing paradigms that has ensured its popularity throughout time. Thematically, crime fiction has motifs such as the restoration of order, good overcoming evil, human nature and the completion of justice. However, it is the subversion of these conventions which exemplify the fluidity of the crime fiction genre, and thus, its diverse and appealing nature.The extent of this can be explored in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost, Marele Day’s The Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender and The Big Sleep, directed by Howard Hawke. Anil’s Ghost presents a post modern metaphysical detection story, holding an ambiguous perception of reality. The text subverts many of the conventions of the genre, particularly the denouement, embracing aspects of postmodernism and blurring the distinctive features of the genre that results in a novel of lyric and poetic features. We will write a custom essay sample on Genre or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The investigative figures, ‘pseudo-detectives’ Anil, notably female, and Sarath, operate outside the law in the strictest secrecy to investigate rather than to solve a crime where the accretion of evidence is a historical and scientific process. There is a realistic solving of the crime, with reliance on rational interrelation. Moreover, as traditional detectives and sleuths usually have a degree of authority, in Anil’s Ghost this is not the case, as revealed by the statement â€Å"doors that should be open are closed. † Ondaatje’s political comment and Anil’s search for truth overturns many of the conventions of crime fiction.Through postmodern values, Ondaatje represents the changing values and attitudes of the world that include rejection of an â€Å"absolute truth†- reflected in the text’s conclusion that evades a sense of justice and closure, as the context of Sri Lanka makes this impossible. The text presents humanity in a contemporary context, the political turmoil of Sri Lanka, a culturally didactic novel which strives to identify the victim rather than the murderer, where crime focuses on a much larger scale than typical crime fiction texts. This exemplifies the diverse nature of this genre.The text does, however, maintain conventions, such as through Anil’s hard-boiled exterior, masculine and typical detective qualities such as quick thinking, intellect and resourcefulness. Corruption is also evident; the decay and distrust of the government is exemplified through gruesome crimes such as Gunesena, the truck driver that Anil and Sarath find crucified to the road. Mystery, although still present, does take a minor position- the secret nature of the war and the general distrust and tension between the characters creates an atmosphere of suspense.Rather, the mystery is used as a vehicle for other focuses. It allows various social commentaries on the devastation o f war, of the Sri Lankan culture and of its values. Through these, we are given insight into a society quite different to our own. The sophistication of Anil’s ghost and the techniques Odaantje used in writing it portray why this text is appealing. The disjointed style of writing and absence of sequential logic sees this post modern text push the boundaries of crime fiction.Ondaatje uses fragmented, layered and shifting voices to create levels within the text – lulled into an aesthetic atmosphere but is shattered by the breaking of the narrative. He also makes use of vivid poetic language â€Å"Sleeping in the wards, he could be only one limb of a large creature, linked to others by the tread of noises† and Sinhalenese words such as â€Å"bajaj, doya reddha† which add authenticity to the novel, making it more fluid and believable. Technique in The Big Sleep also sees an expanding of the diverse genre of crime fiction.The medium of a film combines the paranoid, surveillant investigative eye with a vision of romance. It allowed for the hybrid of a hardboiled fiction and film noir style film which reflects the bleak nihilism of the Post-World War One era in which economic crisis, prohibition and the appearance of a â€Å"gangster† underworld, created an atmosphere of social decay. The film epitomises the â€Å"dark underbelly of American society†, ultimately depicting a morally ambiguous world that is unsure about the inevitability of justice.Various film techniques such as the use of lighting to portray a dark and shadowy world and the â€Å"oil slicked streets† and grimy city setting, satirical remarks and sexual innuendo within the film, emphasis this. However, the Hays Production Code dilutes the darkness of the hardboiled genre to some extent, resorting to the use of euphemisms, symbolism and connotations to portray the illegal and immoral. In this text, the crimes presented are a series of mysteries that create a convoluted plot line- illegal gambling, blackmail, drug a buse, pornography and several deaths.The complexity of the plot similarly allows for mystery to engage the responder- alert attention is required at all times. The nature of the detective, Philip Marlowe, the hard-drinking, morally ambiguous but also relatable detective also aims to produce a mysterious effect. Marlowe’s background where he is clearly isolated from the law after being fired for â€Å"insubordination† implies his own code of values, supplemented by his cynical attitude and quick wit. Mystery is also created in the film through the action scenes, which almost all take place at night, in an ambience of fog, rain and mist, creating a tight feeling of suspense.The use of film noir (a development of the hardboiled genre) has a derogatory and subversive stance on American ideology. The use of greys throughout the film implies moral ambiguity as the monolinear world of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ is mocked. The shadows symbolise the externalisation of the trapped character (for example Marlowe and his need to uphold masculinity), and contribute to the mystery. The use of rain, fog or sunlight contributes to the film noir and furthers Chandler’s characterisation. Romance in the film subverts from the isolation of the detective in the hardboile d genre. It balances the lack of satisfaction gained from the film’s closure (Carmen is not brought to justice, while Taylor’s death is unanswered), in that the sexual tension is solved. This signifies that the text is more focused on character than plot. The romance presents the escapism of Hollywood, and is a medium for the showcasing of the real-life romance between film stars. The hardboiled convention of women as merely sexual objects, or victimised is subverted with characterisation of the femme fatale which is present with the powerful Vivian Sternwood, a feature of film noir.The film, however, rejects the convention of the detective rejecting or leaving the femme fatale in the denouement. Rather the film closes off with a ‘happy’ ending with Vivian and Marlowe together – while noir would not allow this; Hollywood does. Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender is a further affirmation and empowerment of women in the face of hard boiled tradition. Day asks whether it is possible to â€Å"put a female in the hardboiled world and have her come across as a female and not as a man dressed up in sheep’s clothing† and subverts the age old formula in a masterly feminist stroke.Conventionally, women were presented as manipulative, victimised or simply distracting while men were tough and anti-sentimental. Day uses gender inversions and parody to combat these traditional beliefs. Her portrayal of a female detective who is a more complete and human character; her personality a balance of cynicism and compassion, of strengths and weaknesses, challenges the reader’s preconceptions on who can survive in the literature of crime (â€Å"She could never understand how Philip Marlowe and those guys†¦got shot, beaten up, and sometimes laid†¦without ever going to bed†).The fact that no concessions are made for her gender reinforces this. â€Å"The crims don’t discriminate anyway: they’ll blow away a woman on their trail as readily as a man. †Her character represents a template for post-feminist women. Traditional hard boiled generally only use sex for sensational effect; Day takes a more feminist approach. There is subtlety of the sex scenes; her detective’s toughness is allied to emotional sensitivity the story hides sub textually – another modern variation.Steve Angell, the romantic interest, plays the traditional female part, nurturing and supportive which is another socially challenging inversion. Furthermore, graphic descriptions of violence and gunplay are not part of Day’s approach, despite the hard-boiled vehicle she chooses to tell her story. Guns are traditionally male objects and can be seen as phallic symbols used by men to exercise power. Violence can be seen as a particularly male tendency and as a feminist novelist; Day is attempting to challenge this behaviour.This can be seen through that Claudia does not carry a gun but relies on high-powered karate kicks and running fast. Day makes use of the modern technological era a pacemaker commits the murder; Mark’s computer and computer files are at the centre of the plot, reflecting the contemporary computer culture and crime in software. The importance of setting in the hard-boiled subgenre accommodates the extent visualisation of the seedy underbelly of the city of Sydney, so much so that it in itself becomes a character, through which Day explores the issues of nature of cities and power and corruption.Through the exploration of the texts Anil’s Ghost, The Big Sleep and The Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender, and their treatment and depiction of the traditional conventions of crime fiction, it can be concluded that the basic forms of each convention are seen but the traditional representation of them can be subverted, moulded to suit the context of the time. This is what makes crime fiction such a diverse and appealing genre; its ability to adapt to the values and attitudes of the time and ac t as a social and cultural barometer.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Brazil essays

Brazil essays To do business with Brazilians it is important to understand some of their past, their wide variety in culture, and that Brazil is not Latin America. If the United States is considered as the melting pot; then, Brazil should be considered the melting cauldron. Brazil is the 6th most populated country in the world in which 95% of its population lives near the eastern coast on 10% of the land. Brazil has 165 million citizens and is home to the largest Japanese community outside Japan. Brazilians come from the three major racial stocks of the world: American Indian, African Negro, and Caucasian European (Video: Doing business in Latin America: Brazil; Brazil: A study in development Progress/ Stefan H. Robock, 1975). Brazils economy is the largest in South America and is also the 10th largest in the world. This economy is in a continuous cycle of booms and busts. Stability is not a strong suit for this economy. An investor could make a lot of money soon and they could also lose it as quickly as it was made. In the words of a Brazilian businessman Brazil is like a roller ouster, sit back and enjoy the ride (Video: Doing business in Latin America: Brazil) During the fall of the Asian market, inflation reached an all-time high of 8500%. People used to buy everything as soon as they received their paycheck. The value of the Real got devaluated so much, that the value would decrease almost daily. Employees also expected a raise every month to keep up with inflation. In the mid 1990s the HEOFF (Real plan) plan cut the inflation to single digits and put the citizens back in the world market (www.presidencia.gov.br) Agriculture has vital role in the economy with 1/3 of the workforce producing coffee, oranges, and bananas. Manufacturing was based on government protectionism which started after WWII. Protectionism from imports made the Brazil had a closed market which led to a very inefficient ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Research Methods critique of a qualitative journal Literature review

Research Methods critique of a qualitative journal - Literature review Example It is a concise title, which is free of extraneous words and or phrases. Abstract. The wide ranging approach of the article is confirmed in the abstract which stresses the â€Å"complex and multifaceted† way in which ideology affects people at various stages in their professional careers, and in different contexts. The abstract highlights the theoretical underpinning of the work by the work of Goffman on frame analysis (1974; 1981) and outlines how a grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the interactions between professionals and older people. There was some indication of the scope, the variables and the findings of the study in the abstract, but little in the way of detail. The most accurate description for the type of research that this study represents is a survey, with strong theoretical underpinning and a focus on linking ideology with practice. No direct interactions between social workers and clients were observed, and the information about such interactions w as second-hand via the interviewing process. Introduction The problem that the article addresses is was very clearly defined as a need to evaluate the success of the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act in meeting the needs of older people. This is not a new issue, since the Act had been in force for almost two decades at the the time of publication of the article, but the author demonstrates that the critical literature has produced very mixed evaluations. The complexity of the environment, with its conflicting demands such as professional standards, management directives, shifting ideologies, financial constraints and different individual values has led to a proliferation of research outputs which illuminate the detail, but do not address the more fundamental question of dominant ideologies. The background to the problem is described as â€Å"a practice context that has challenged well established modes of social work intervention, †¦ an emphasis on inter-professional workingâ₠¬ ¦ and ethical considerations surrounding service rationing and individual rights.† (Sullivan, 2009). The problem itself is clearly formulated as a need to â€Å"explore both the manifest content and the functional properties of dominant ideology in community care practice†. (Sullivan, 2009) Literature Review Sullivan cites a number of key studies in her description of the fundamental changes in the delivery of care to older people since 1990. These include the work of Postle (1999; 2000; 2002) on the changing role of social workers, and various studies on how bureaucracy affects the delivery of care, such as Lipsky (1980) in an American context and Ellis et al. (2007) in a UK context. Stereotypes of social worker description are listed with reference to Wilmot (1995) and Dalley (1991). A great many studies on organizational policy and its effects on professionals and older people are cited. The extensive quotation of other scholars gives the literature review the qual ity of a meta-analysis, and at the end of this the author homes in on the issue of how ideologies impact on practice delivery. The somewhat overpowering density of references is no doubt due to the fact that the article rests on the author’s PhD research. (Sullivan, 2003). Method procedure. The study proper begins with a reiteration of Goffman’